• 25.1 Page 730 Section Assessment

    1. Can obtain oxygen and nutrients through diffusion

    2. Free-living flatworms have mouths and digestive tracts; parasitic flatworms have hooks for attachment to hosts and reduced digestive systems

    4. Move water out of the body; keep cells from being waterlogged.


    25.2 Page 736 Section Assessment

    1. Pseudocoelom separates endoderm-lined gut from the rest of the body.

    2. Roundworms: pseudocoelom with 2 openings to gut, flatworms: acoelomates with one opening to gut

    3. Muscles run the length of their bodiesl thrashing occurs as one muscle contract and another relaxes

    4. Trichinosis:  improperly cooked pork; ascarid and hookworms: contaminated surfaces, filarial worms: infected mosquitoes.


    25.4  Page 751  Section Assessment

    1.  Enabled annelids to have a rigid muscle support system for efficient movement.  Segments can be specialized.

    2. Earthworms: segmented hae a coelom and larval stage; flatworms: lack coelom, unsegmented; roundworms: unsegmented have pseudocoelom; all three have bilateral symmetry.

    3. Annelids are cylindrical with segments, clitellum and mouths.  Polychaete have papapodia and bristles and segments.  A leech should be flattened with suckers.

    4. Circular muscles contract and elongate a segment.  Longitudinal muscles contract, causing the segments to return to its original shape.






    19.3  Page 560 Section Assessment

    1.  Because they photosynthesize their own food.

    2. Diatoms - photosynthesize, silica cell wall

        Dinoflagellates - photosynthesize, some are heterotrophic, have 2 flagella

        Euglenoids - photosynthesize and some are heterotrophic, have an eyespot, and have a flagella

    3.  Green algae decompose, but the silica cell walls of diatoms do not.

    4.  To receive sunlight for photosynthesis




    19.2 Page 552 Section Assessment

    1. All protozoans obtain their nutrition by consuming other organisms:

    sarcodina -use pseudopods; reproduction - asexual 

    sporozoan - moved by their host; reproduction by spores

    zooflagellates - move by flagella; reproduction requires their host organism

    2. Your explanation should include how the organelles help maintain homeostasis

    3. Diagram should be similar to Figure 19.9

    4. New organisms are not formed.



    Page 40  What is a Protist?

    1. Answers will vary based on the protist you looked up.

    2.  You should infer tht animal-like protists have structures that enable them to move and capture food, and plant-like protists have structures that enable them to make food. 







    19.1 Biology Section Answers

    Page 545

    1.  This is a simple way to classify such a diverse group of organisms.

    2. Your diagram should look similar to Figure 19.3

    3. This Kingdom is necessary for the classification for all organisms that do not fit into the other kingdom categories.

    4. method of obtaining nutrition; presence of mitochondria or chloroplasts

    5.  Classifying protists by how they get their food is an easy way to classify protists, but it is not the best method because it does not consider the evolutionary history. 

    Organisms that share the same methods of getting food may or may not be as closely related as 2 protists that do not have the same way of getting food.










    18.1 Biology Section Quick 

    Check Answers

    1.  Some Prokaryotes take in preformed nutrients.  Others use sunlight to make organic molecules. A third type breaks down and releases inorganic compounds.

    2. Pili help a bacterial cell attach to an environmental surface or transfer plasmids between bacterial cells.

    3.  Prokaryotes are small unicellular organisms with no organelles.  Their genes are in an area of the cell called the nucleoid.  They have a polysaccharide capsule around their cell wall.

    4.  They both are simple cells with no organelles.  The cell walls of the eubacteria contain peptidoglycan, but the cell walls of the archaebacteria do not.  They also have different lipids, ribosomal proteins, and different RNA.

    5.  Each bacterial cell usually produces only one spore, so the total number of bacterial cells remains the same.  Reproduction would increase the number of bacterial cells.









    Study Guide 18.1 Answers

    1.  Same - Eubacteria and archaebacteria are both prokaryotes.  

    Different - Eubacteria have strong cell walls containing peptidoglycan, and archaebacteria do not.  They each have different lipids in their plasma membranes, as well as different ribosomal proteins and RNA.  Archaebacteria enjoy living in extreme environments.


    2.  Same - Thermoacidophiles and halophiles are both archaebacteria that live in extreme environments.  

    Different - Thermoacidophiles thrive in hot, acidic environments. Halophiles live in salty environments.  Most thermoacidophiles are anaerobes and halophiles are not.


    3. Flagella

    4. pili

    5. plasma membrane

    6. chromosome

    7. capsule

    8. cell wall

    9. C

    10. D

    11. A

    12. B

    13. drawing should show spherical prokaryotes

    14. drawing should show rod-shaped prokaryotes

    15. drawing should show spiral-shaped prokaryotes

    16. bacteria

    17. decomposers

    18. nitogen

    19. nitrogen fixation

    20. normal flora

    21. symbiotically 

    22. vitamin K

    23. yogurt

    24. antibiotic

    25. disease

    Prion Diseases 

    Part A 

    1.  Answers could include that CWD spread from captive deer and elk in a small area, to wild deer and elk in a small area, and then captive and wild deer and elk in a large area.

    2. Answers could include suggestions such as making sure any animals that are brought into the state are free from CWD and improving the fencing in facilities and farms that have deer and elk to keep them from escaping.

    Part B

    1.  Answers could include that feeding deer leads to higher concentration of deer in one area.  This increases the chances of a diseased deer transmitting the disease to healthy deer.

    2. Recommendations could include not eating the meat from the hunted deer or elk or having the hunted animals tested and only eating the meat if the animals are free from CWD.


    What are the differences between animal cells and bacterial cells?

    1.  Animal cells have characteristics of eukaryotic cells, whereas the bacterial cell contains characteristics of a prokaryotic cell.

    2.  Yes, animal and bacterial cells are living things because they can live independently. 







    Biology Answers Page 524

    1.  Diagram should include a representation of the cell wall, chromosome, pili, and capsule.

    2.  The 2 groups have different biological and genetic components and they live in different environments.

    3. Individually, bacteria form endospores that are resistant to harsh environments.  Random genetic mutations allow bacteria as a population to adapt to new conditions.

    4.  Bacteria recycle nutrients in an ecosystem.  E. coli produces vitamin K.  Some bacteria are used to make antibiotics or other medicines. 

    5.  The diversity in prokaryotes exists on the cellular level and is not visible to the naked eye.